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A Solution to Latency in IoT Devices

IoT Latency Solution IEEE Wake-Up Radio

In 2016, a PwC survey of 1,000 U.S. consumers found:

  • 45% reported owning a fitness band
  • 27% a smartwatch
  • 12% smart clothing

Furthermore, 57% said they’re excited about the future of wearable technology as part of everyday life. In order for the full power of these devices to be realized, however, it is important to ensure that latency isn’t a problem.

The Latency Problem with Internet of Things (IoT) Devices

The challenge with IoT devices is that they run on batteries. This makes them convenient…no one wants to be tethered by a cord. But it also brings challenges. In order to preserve the lifespan of batteries, IoT devices systematically wake up from sleep mode to retrieve new information. The longer the device is asleep, the less power it consumes. This also means that there are fewer opportunities for information to be exchanged. This impacts the performance of the device, causing it to run slower (known as latency).

In today’s devices, low power consumption and low latency are in conflict with one another. Because of the advent of Internet of Things technologies, however, finding a low-power, low-latency solution is of the utmost importance.

IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio - Buy Now!The Most Viable Solutions to Latency

There is a great deal of research going on right now in the low-latency low-power field, with two dominant solutions emerging: Wake-Up Radio (created by IEEE 802.11ba standards working group) and Bluetooth Low Energy (Bluetooth Smart). In this context it’s worth noting that Bluetooth Low Energy is not the same as the Bluetooth prevalent in today’s consumer devices. Rather, it’s a new technology needs to be included in devices moving forward in order to take advantage of Bluetooth Low Energy.

Internet of Things device manufacturers must be cognizant of their options when it comes to these technologies. If your company is considering Internet of Things devices, it’s essential that you understand how Wake-Up Radio works, and how it may impact your products and your business, especially if the device will run on IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi®).

Based on work of the IEEE 802.11ba standards task group, the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio highlights current and projected developments in this groundbreaking technology that allows devices to achieve low power and low latency at the same time, greatly reducing the frequent recharging or replacement of batteries. This report is especially useful for helping manufacturers analyze and prepare for the implementation of Wake-Up Radio when the standard is finalized within the next 2-3 years.

To purchase your copy of the IEEE Wake-Up Radio Report, click here. Or, contact an IEEE Content Specialist about an institutional purchase of the report.

Resources

16 Aug. 2016. IoT Facts and Figures. What’s the Big Data.

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Introduction to Predictive Maintenance

Introduction to Predictive MaintenanceAs the Industrial Internet of Things continues to grow, predictive maintenance technology is transforming industries by evaluating the condition of equipment, determining if and when maintenance and repairs are needed, and preventing failures from happening in the first place.

Since it’s estimated that the Internet of Things will be connected to 80 billion devices by 2025, it’s important to invest in performance-predicting technologies now to improve safety and reliability. (Kerravala, 2017)

How It Works

If the Internet of Things had its own “fight or flight” response, it would be predictive maintenance. It observes the start of a mechanism malfunction or deterioration, with the express goal of correcting said malfunction or deterioration before significant degradation in the component or equipment occurs. (McKinsey Global Institute, 2015). The result can be a significant increase in productivity and return on investment.

Predictive technology is helping many businesses and public services run faster, more efficiently, and cost effectively. The diagnostic capabilities of predictive maintenance technologies have increased in recent years, thanks to advances made in sensor technologies.

Take the city of Chicago for example, which in late 2016 deployed predictive technology to take out the trash — literally. It relied on smart sensors to help determine which dumpsters needed emptying and when, thus keeping the city cleaner and its residents happier. By utilizing connected technology to yield previously unobtainable data on waste management without significant human time investment, stress-ridden “what happens when…” possibilities can quickly become a thing of the past. Just ask Chicago’s sanitation workers.

Collaboration Is Key

As always, when any new technology is introduced, proper training is required to ensure it is applied appropriately. This is particularly true when it comes to the field of predictive maintenance technology, as its level of sophistication continues to evolve each and every day.

It’s important for professionals working in engineering, IT, computer science and related fields across all industries to be trained in the Internet of Things. For more information, check out the online course program IEEE Guide to Internet of Things.

Imagine living and working in an environment where technology is fixed even before it breaks. It’ll be here before you know it.

Resources:

McKinsey Global Institute. (2015, June). Unlocking the potential of the Internet of Things. McKinsey & Company.

Kerravala, Zeus. (2017, Dec. 4). DDI is a critical component of IoT success. Network World.

Newman,  Daniel (2017, 5 Dec.). 3 Areas The IoT Will Impact You Without You Even Knowing. Forbes.

Sisson, Patrick. (2016, Sept. 7). Chicago’s new smart sensor network is a game changer for city data. Curbed.

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Managing IoT on the Edge

edge computing internet of things (IoT)As Internet of Things (IoT) devices proliferate, so does the data that they produce. As more and more data is produced, organizations are finding it to be a costly endeavor to send, process, and store all of this data in the cloud. In fact, some organizations don’t even have the connectivity within their infrastructure to send large amounts of data to the cloud. (Anderson, 2017) Reliance on cloud computing alone also slows down device performance, as bandwidth constraints constrict how much data can be sent and received. Cloud computing alone cannot efficiently handle the IoT. This is why edge computing is becoming a critical factor in IoT deployments.

Edge computing moves data processing from the cloud to hardware on the “edge” of the network. By keeping the data processing local, latency is minimized, which is critical for deployments where real-time processing and time-sensitive decisions are mission critical. Artificial intelligence can help parse data and trigger local actions, such as scheduling maintenance with a facility that has the necessary parts, or deciding when a safety alert needs to be sent. Monitoring, diagnostics, performance optimization, and predictive maintenance are all functions that benefit from an edge computing solution.

In addition to reduced latency, there’s another key benefit to edge computing. It is estimated that the cost of a combined edge and cloud infrastructure is 1/3 of the cost of a cloud-only solution. (Gaunt, 2017) Most of this cost savings is realized through the reduction of bandwidth requirements and computing resources.

Of course, when moving to the edge, security is a critical factor. Cyber security must be deployed in both hardware and software to protect an organization’s data and hardware. As the cyber security of Internet of Things devices continues to develop, it is essential that IoT device manufacturers take into account the fact that some processing will occur on the edge, and build in security measures, including the ability to install updates as needed. Yet the edge may even be more secure than the cloud, as it is by its very nature decentralized. It is more complex for a cyber attacker to hack the decentralized edge, than the more centralized cloud.

Edge computing offers exciting opportunities for IoT development, and the intelligent processing of data that these devices produce. Investment of infrastructure to support the edge will continue, and should yield strong returns for organizations, both financially, as well as through better use of data.

To learn more about the Internet of Things, check out our online course program IEEE Guide to the Internet of Things.

 

References

Gaunt, T. (20 Nov, 2017). Pushing IoT to the Edge. Networks Asia. 

Anderson, J. (17 Nov, 2017). Managing IoT with Edge Computing. Network Computing.

Figueredo, K. (15 Nov, 2017). Edge Computing and AI: From Theory to Implementation. IoT Agenda.

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Powering Predictive Maintenance

Powering Predictive Maintenance from IEEE Innovation at WorkPredictive maintenance is one of the most compelling use cases for the industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). In fact, according to IBM, predictive maintenance can prevent up to 70% of equipment breakdowns, and reduce downtime by as much as 50%.

In the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio (IEEE, 2017), this use case is highlighted as one of the biggest market opportunities in the next five years, impacting industries such as shipping and logistics, process industries, discrete manufacturing, utilities, and healthcare. Even governments are taking advantage of predictive maintenance: The United States Department of Defense just announced that it will use C3 IoT’s platform to develop artificial intelligence tools for predictive maintenance of assets. (Dignan, 2017)

As organizations begin to take advantage of predictive maintenance, the practical matter of deployment comes into play. Not every device and sensor used for predictive maintenance can be wired. Wireless applications are numerous, and powering those deployments in a sustainable way is critical.

That’s where IEEE Wake-Up Radio comes into play. This upcoming standard, being developed by the IEEE 802.11ba standards task group, will significantly increase battery life in Internet of Things devices. The energy savings is significant, increasing the life of a single battery by years. This reduces costs even further for organizations that seek the benefits of predictive maintenance, both in terms of the cost of the batteries themselves, as well as in the man-hours needed to physically change the batteries. Depending on the number of devices and sensors deployed within an organization, the cost savings can be significant.

The development of predictive maintenance devices and sensors needs to take IEEE Wake-Up Radio into account when planning future devices. If the devices will be connected via 802.11 (Wi-Fi®), then IEEE Wake-Up Radio is required in order to stay competitive in a crowded market.

To learn more about IEEE Wake-Up Radio, check out the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio, available now.

 

Resources

IEEE. (November 2017) IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio: An Application, Market, and Technology Impact Analysis of Low-Power/Low-Latency 802.11 Wireless LAN Interfaces. IEEE Educational Activities and IEEE Standards Association.

Dignan, L. (November 2017). C3 IoT Lands Department of Defense Deal for Aircraft Predictive Maintenance. ZDNet. 

 

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Industry IoT Growth Trends

Industry IoT Growth TrendsThe adoption of Internet of Things (IoT) systems for business continues to rise. In a recent study of manufacturing, transportation, and oil and gas organizations, 86% say that they are adopting IoT solutions, and 84% believe they are very and extremely effective. (Hedge, 2017) In this article, we take a look at some of these IoT growth trends, and what is driving them.

According to a recent Technavio report, the industrial wearables market is forecast to grow over 10% through 2021. (Burns, 2017) What is driving this growth? There are three trends that we see:

  • Digitalization and automation
  • A focus on workplace safety and efficiency
  • Growing adoption of smart sensors

One interesting example of an industrial wearable is smart glasses. Smart glasses allow an industrial worker to see not just the physical plant, but also computer generated images and sound over the plant. Imagine looking at machinery and seeing the placement and operational status of every sensor. This type of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) device eliminates the need for workers to carry additional electronics such as tablets and cameras.

Another recent study of IT professionals found that 77% of companies that have invested in IoT systems have adopted IoT security services, which is another of the IoT growth trends we’re seeing. (Reisinger, 2017) In fact, the top three reasons these IT professionals say they have invested in IoT solutions include:

  1. An opportunity to boost security
  2. Improve operational processes
  3. Reduce costs

Given the fact that IoT security is such a pressing issue, it is interesting that IT professionals see IoT systems as an opportunity to boost security. Perhaps the increased focus on IoT security enables IT professionals to bring a renewed focus on many security practices within the organization, and are the driving force behind this as one of the IoT growth trends.

In the industrial sphere, however, 90% of IIoT adopters say that the primary reason that they have adopted IIoT solutions is device health. IIoT devices enable industrial users to monitor and greatly improve the efficiency of their operations. In fact 73% plan to increase their investment in the IoT over the next 12 months.

Several of these studies note, however, that there is still opportunity to make greater investments in deep data analytics. Beyond the efficiencies generated by IoT devices, a great deal of data is also created. By investing in the artificial intelligence/deep learning systems that can make intelligent use of this data, organizations can experience even greater rewards from their investment in the internet of things.

Would you like to learn more about the Internet of Things? Check out the IEEE Guide to the Internet of Things. This 8-course online learning program will help you learn the foundations of the Internet of Things, and help you get started in this growing field.

 

Resources

Reisinger, D. (2017,  13 Nov.)  Study Finds Internet of Things Will Continue Rapid Growth Rate in 2018eWeek.

Hedge, Z. (2017, 13 Nov.) New Research Shows Industrial Organisations Increasingly Focused on IoT Adoption, but Most are Still in Early StagesIoTNow.

Burns, M. (2017, 11 Nov.) IoT-enabled Industrial Wearables Market – Drivers and Forecasts by Technavio. The Daily Telescope.

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IoT Data Needs Artificial Intelligence

IoT Data Needs Artificial IntelligenceInternet of Things (IoT) devices produce massive amounts of data. From environmental and logistics data in the industrial IoT, to health data in your wearable, the IoT data being produced by billions of devices on a daily basis is far greater than human beings can process alone. In fact, according to Forrester, as much as 60-73% of data within an enterprise goes unused for analytics. All of this valuable information may just be sitting idle in data warehouses and lakes. (Barzilay, 2017)

Think about what could be done if IoT data was used and optimized. People could make better decisions. Resources could be more efficiently deployed. Money could be saved while improving the human experience. In short, better use of the data already being collected could vastly improve the lives of people and organizations. And we might even get smarter about the data we could/should be collecting, because not all data is useful. But how do we decide if we don’t have the capacity to look at all the data?

Enter artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence and the Internet of Things (IoT) were practically made for each other, and can help us understand the context of the information that is collected. (Bergey, 2017) Normal algorithms alone are not sophisticated enough to manage the vast streams of IoT data. The information must be collected and analyzed, often at the edge of networks, rather than in the cloud, so that better decisions can be made.

According to Bergey, “Artificial intelligence is an example of massive real-time processing at the edge, enabling machines to perform human-like tasks. The in-machine sensors read, compare and physically map machine or robotic data to its environment, and include analysis and intelligent algorithms that look for patterns in the data, and will alert operators to anomalies and opportunities for process improvements that can save a manufacturing operation significant time and money.”

Another issue is data storage. Without artificial intelligence, we could be incurring the costs of storing and securing massive amounts of data that is essentially meaningless. It is much more efficient to use artificial intelligence systems to decide which data is important and worth processing/keeping, and which data can be discarded without consequence.

As Internet of Things devices continue to grow and proliferate, it is essential that artificial intelligence grow alongside them, managing the data flow and helping humans better manage the data they have. When deployed effectively, artificial intelligence systems can help improve the human experience while reducing the storage of meaningless information that simply wastes resources. The IoT needs artificial intelligence, and will be vastly improved through its implementation.

Want to learn more about the Internet of Things? IEEE offers an 8-course series called IEEE Guide to the Internet of Things.

 

Resources

Barzilay, O. (2017, 2 Nov). Can Blockchain and AI Accelerate the Arrival of the IoT Economy? Forbes.

Bergey, C. (2017, 2 Nov). Data Context vs. Content in an IIoT Environment. IoT Agenda. 

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Powering the Industrial Internet of Things

Powering the Industrial Internet of ThingsThe Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has the potential to revolutionize industry. With use cases that promise to increase capacity and efficiency while lowering costs, IIoT technology is a smart investment that pays off quickly.

Some of the use cases that hold huge potential include predictive maintenance, which helps keep assets up and running, avoiding downtime and costly routine maintenance when it isn’t warranted. (Tracy, 2017) The safety of industrial spaces improves as sensors provide alerts about unsafe conditions. Assets can be tracked easily, making it easier to locate and move goods efficiently while monitoring inventory. Fleets can be deployed efficiently where they are needed, reducing overall resource consumption while maximizing impact. In short, IIoT devices and sensors can make it easier and more efficient to do business, creating safer, more productive environments.

IIoT devices and sensors often need to function in hostile environments, however, and can be expected to work 24/7. They are tucked away in hard-to-reach places and are increasingly smaller. Environmental conditions around the device or sensor can be very hot or cold, and sometimes humid or dusty. For example, machines may reach 150°C in a plastic packaging plant, or have to withstand freezing temperatures near a pipeline in Alaska. (Pasero, 2017) It is much more feasible to have devices that run on batteries, and those batteries need to last as long as possible. The challenge is that, while IIoT devices and sensors are often designed to last for 10-15 years, their batteries only last 2-3 years. Given that the IIoT market is expected to grow to 75.4 billion devices by 2025, that’s a lot of batteries that need charging and replacement. (Columbus, 2016)

Fortunately, there is a solution that can help to extend battery life in the Industrial Internet of Things. IEEE has just released the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio. This technology, under development right now by the IEEE 802.11ba standards working group, can increase the battery life of an IIoT device by up to 94%. This can add years to the life of a battery, and in turn an Internet of Things device. The duty-cycled IEEE Wake-Up Radio is added to the device, which only wakes up the device when it is needed. By maintaining a longer sleep state, the battery lasts longer. The result is cost savings, improved efficiency, and longer device life.

The Industrial Internet of Things will continue to grow because it brings such powerful return on investment. But powering the Industrial Internet of Things must be planned for, in order to reap all of the benefits this technology can provide. IIoT device manufacturers need to plan now to integrate IEEE Wake-Up Radio into their devices, and the IEEE Technology Report has the information organizations need to gain this competitive advantage.

Order your copy of the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio today, or request information about organizational pricing.

 

Resources

Philip, T. (April, 2017). The Top 5 Industrial IoT Use Cases. IBM Internet of Things Blog.

Pasero, D. (2017) Powering sensor nodes for industrial IoT. Power Electronics News.

Columbus, L. (November, 2016). Roundup of Internet of Things Forecasts and Market Estimates. Forbes.

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IEEE Wake-Up Radio Report: Order Your Copy Now

IEEE Wake-Up Radio Report will be released on 1 November, 2017

Click to see a preview version of the report.

On 1 November, 2017, IEEE releases the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio. There has been an unprecedented amount of interest in this report, primarily because it solves a very real problem facing the Internet of Things: conserving battery life while maintaining high performance in Internet of Things devices over wireless networks. Technology companies and professionals that are developing Internet of Things devices that will run over 802.11 (Wi-Fi®) networks understand that what they will learn in this report is essential if they want their devices to be competitive in the white-hot Internet of Things market.

“IEEE Wake-Up radio is an add-on to the existing 802.11 radios that substantially improves power-saving performance of 802. It removes the need to compromise between power savings and latency. This makes the technology suitable for a new class of battery-powered devices. I’m excited to see what innovative applications emerge,” said Adrian Stephens, IEEE 802.11 Working Group Chair.

The report covers many of topics essential to IoT developers, including:

  • How IEEE Wake-Up Radio works
  • Economic impact
  • Market opportunities
  • Use cases and challenges
  • A comparison of IEEE Wake-Up Radio to other technologies
  • Specification framework

The result is a significant increase in battery life, which will have huge impacts on the types of IoT devices that can be developed, along with the environmental impact and use cases of those devices (and their batteries.)

“Energy conservation is a critical requirement for the billions of future networked devices exclusively dependent on battery power with a target operational lifetime in excess of five years. These devices will make up a substantial fraction of the Internet of Things market. IEEE 802.11ba aka Wake Up Radio is a key enabling energy conserving technology for the markets they will serve. This insightful report has been crafted to help you understand the potential of the technology and market,” said Paul Nikolich, Chair IEEE 802.

The IEEE Wake-Up Radio Report will be released this week. You can purchase a copy via IEEE Xplore here: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8055459/

or contact an IEEE Content Specialist about an institutional subscription to the report.

Don’t miss out on your chance to be one of the first to integrate this groundbreaking technology. Order your copy of the IEEE Wake-Up Radio Report today.

 

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Should the Government Regulate IoT Devices?

Should the government regulate IoT devices?As security concerns rise about Internet of Things (IoT) devices, so does the debate about the necessity of government regulations. Should the government regulate IoT? Many Internet of Things devices on the market today have little to no security built in, which can compromise the privacy and even personal security of consumers.

Many consumers today are not (yet) clamoring for more regulation. A lot of them do not realize that their smart devices may be compromising their privacy in significant ways. Yet there is a growing concern from those in government and industry that something must be done. The question is, however, whether more secure devices will arise through government regulations imposed by governments that are often hacked themselves, or by the Internet of Things industry itself.

Should the government regulate IoT?

Proponents of government regulations see the following benefits to having the government regulate IoT devices:

  • Standards applied to every device that help to protect the security of consumers
  • Requirements for patches that take new security concerns into account

Opponents take a different view. Should the government regulate IoT devices, they are concerned about:

  • Regulation and bureaucracy stifling innovation
  • Expensive regulations eliminating smaller companies, reducing consumer choice and competition
  • The government lacks the expertise to effectively regulate these devices

What are lawmakers doing today?

Several countries are already proposing regulations related to this issue. For example, in Australia, lawmakers have proposed a certification for IoT devices with requirements such as:

  • Changeable, non-guessable, non-default passwords
  • Not to expose ports to the wider internet
  • Software updates to fix known vulnerabilities

In the United States, lawmakers are working on a bill related to devices purchased by the federal government that includes requirements such as:

  • Devices must be patchable, rely on industry standard protocols, and be built without hard-coded passwords and known security vulnerabilities
  • Alternative network-level security requirements for devices with limited data processing and software functionality
  • Cybersecurity coordinated vulnerability disclosure policies will be required of all contractors that provide connected devices to the U.S. Government

It is essential that Internet of Things devices become more secure in order to protect consumers, governments, and organizations alike, while complying with international data privacy regulations. Whether that is done through government regulation or industry self-regulation remains to be seen. Likely it will be a combination of both. As consumers and organizations alike become more aware of the security risks of IoT devices, the market demand for more secure devices will grow, increasing the supply in a market-driven economy. Likely we will see the government regulate IoT devices, while the market demand increases.

What do you think?

Should governments regulate Internet of Things devices? Or can the industry self-regulate? Please share your thoughts in the comments.

And if you’d like to learn more about the Internet of Things, check out our newest course program: IEEE Guide to the Internet of Things.

 

References:

List, J. (2017, 16 Oct). Aussies Propose Crackdown on Insecure IoT Devices. Hackaday.

Corsec. (2017, 27 Sept). IoT Security Facing Government Regulation. Corsec blog.

Thierer, A. and O’Sullivan, A. (2017, 12 June). Leave the Internet of Things Alone. US News & World Report.

Thomson, I. (2017, 15 Feb). You Know IoT Security is Bad when Libertarians Call for Strict RegulationsThe Register.

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How to Make IoT Batteries Last Longer

Make IoT Batteries Last Longer: IEEE Wake-Up Radio InfographicAnalyst firm Gartner predicts that there will be 8.4 billion connected “things” in 2017, which will then expand to 20.4 billion Internet of Things (IOT) devices by 2020. That number is staggering. And it is reasonable to expect that a great many of these devices will run on batteries. Yet battery life can be limited. How do we make IoT batteries last longer?

Consider the use cases:

  • Wearable medical devices that cannot be hard wired
  • Logistics sensors on vehicles, moving from place to place
  • Agricultural IoT devices in the middle of fields
  • Smart home consumer devices that are easier to install without hardwiring, increasing market adoption

…and these are just a few instances of the many IoT use cases that will require battery operated devices. Given the sheer number of devices, it is essential that IoT manufacturers create devices that have a long battery life while maintaining optimal performance. We must make IoT batteries last longer.

This is why the IEEE 802.11ba standards working group is developing the IEEE Wake-Up Radio standard. This technology has the potential to increase battery life in IoT devices from months to years. When you consider the cost of replacing 20.4 billion batteries (both the batteries themselves, as well as the time involved), this will have significant economic impact.

How it Works

IoT devices have an embedded radio that has to “wake up” in order for data to be transmitted. The longer the device is awake, the more power it consumes, but the higher the performance. To solve the power issue, a 2nd, low-power, duty-cycled Wake-Up Radio is added to the device that waits for transmissions. This Wake-Up Radio only wakes up the main device when it is needs to, allowing a longer device sleep state without compromising performance. Ensuring that the Wake-Up Radio uses duty cycling increases the battery life even more.

The result is a high-performance IoT device that last for years rather than months on a single battery.

The impact is clear. IoT devices that will run on IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi®) connections need IEEE Wake-Up Radio. Device manufacturers need this information now, in order to build this into their IoT devices of tomorrow.

IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio

To help IoT device manufacturers prepare for IEEE Wake-Up Radio even before the standard is released, IEEE is offering a technology report that outlines the technology, use cases, and more. The report will be released on 2 November, 2017, and is available for pre-sale now. Device manufacturers that begin planning for IEEE Wake-Up Radio now will have a competitive advantage, especially in consumer categories where IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi®) connections are ubiquitous. They will be able to make IoT batteries last longer in their devices.

Increasing battery life in IoT devices is essential. When it comes to devices that run on IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi®) connections, IEEE Wake-Up Radio is the solution. Pre-order the IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio now, and prepare your organization for a competitive advantage in the future.

 

References

Tung, L. (2017, Feb 7). IoT Devices Will Outnumber the World’s Population this Year for the First Time. ZDNet.

McCormick, D. (2017, Nov 2). 802.11ba Battery Life Improvement – Preview: IEEE Technology Report on Wake-Up Radio. IEEE Xplore.

 

 

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